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History - English

HISTORY OF THE ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY
IN HURBANOVO

 

 

 

To a lot of institutions in our country which have important place in the history of scientific culture not only on our territory, but au over the world, belongs also the Observatory in Hurbanovo.

It was founded in the second half of the 19 century and its uninterrupted activity till nowadays, has significantly intervened in the lives of several generations. It‘s observational activity, production of the new cosmic notions, their popularization, has always served to the development of practical and spiritual mans forces to know much more the natural regularities of the surrounding world and their usage for mankind benefit. The significance of the Observatory in Hurbanovo is not only historical one. The observational results from more then 120 years ago are the same, actual even in the age of the cosmic flights. They give deeper perception in time of changes in physical substance of various celestial bodies in universe and they are a dignified step in the gradual uncovering of the secrets of infinity.

Introduction

 

First mention of Hurbanovo (Ó Gyalla, Stará Ďala) is to be found in historical documents as "possessio Gyala"in 1357. The rich archeologically discoveries in its territory, however, are evidence of a significant historic value. During past centuries there were 11 nationalities, occupying it. Hurbanovo is also connected with the names of its famous natives such as Karol Beše, an important geographer living on the break of the 17–18 century; Arpád Feszty, an excellent painter living at the end of the 19 century and Dr. Mikuláš Konkoly Thege – an astronomer, making Hurbanovo famous all over the world. In the present Hurbanovo is well known not only priks observatory but also for a brewery, producing the Hurbanovo‘s ”Zlatý bažant. The period, in which dr. Mikuláš Konkoly–Thege began his astronomical observations, was known with a great scientific–technical development. It was characteristic in astronomy that the recent physical gains are gradually coming into astronomy, although the standing astronomy at the time till the beginning of 19 century was oriented only to the description of celestial bodies‘movements and to the uncovering of their regularities. The new physical methods in astronomy (astrophotography, spectroscopy and spectral analysis) have stimulated the creation of a new astronomical branch – astrophysics, unlike the astronomy at the second half of the 18 century when the astronomer’s attention was concentrated to the research of the Sun, the Moon and the planets‘ surface (W. Herschel, Lord Rosse) at a development of big telescopes. Especially a discovery of spectral analysis (G. R. Kirchhof, R. W. Bunsen), practically done well since 1860, has been a tremendous contribution in getting to know of celestial bodies‘structure, construction and physical qualities. Simultaneously with spectral analysis, astrophotography, there were spectroscopic researches, important for a development of astrophysics, they have been realized by English astronomers John W. Herschel (1792–1871), William Huggins (1824–1910), Sir Joseph N. Lockyer (1836–1920), German astronomers Hermann C. Vogel (1841–1907), Julius Scheiner (1858–1913), Italian astronomer Angello Secchi (1818–1878) and the others. The principal mention for development of astrophysics belongs also to researches by Friedrich Zöllner (1829–1891) in photometric branch. It‘s allowed to introduce also the founder of astrophysical observatory In Hurbanovo, dr. M. Konkoly–Thege, next to famous names of these astronomers. He was positively evaluated already by his contemporaries like a pioneer in work in this new branch of astronomy.

 

                               Konkoly´s observatory in 1896                            The American observatory

 

Dr. Mikuláš Konkoly–Thege

The founder of one of the first astrophysical observatories in Central Europe, meteorological and geophysical observatory in Hurbanovo, was born on 20th of January, 1842 in Budapest. His whole life was consecrated to development of science and scientific knowledge. His general talent and relation to science and art were shown already in his childhood. He drew, played the piano excellently, composed very well hut he spent most time in one of parents house‘s rooms, where he had established a small workshop. Twelve years old he constructed steam–engine whose original piston later became the prototype used in engineering practice.

14 years old M. Konkoly

In the school–year 1857/58 he started on University in Budapest as a part–time student after his matriculation in Benedictive grammar school in Komárno. Probably here, his interest in study of spectral analysis was formed, under the leadership of professor of physics A. Jedlik, his resourceful experiments and one unsuccessful physical experiment. Concerning the interest in astronomy, mothers’ telegram had strong effect on him during his study. She called him to come back home to keep the whole family together during the catastrophe after collision between Earth and Donati‘s bright comet in 1858. This experience convinced him permanently about a usefulness of scientific knowledge and the need of endless spreading of scientific notions.

Since 1860 he makes his study much more extensive on University in Berlin, where he studies law according to parents’ wishes. In 1862 he becomes a successful graduate with doctor diploma.

He is taking lectures on science from significant representatives of science of that time during his studying on Berlin University. Among others, there were J. H. Dowe, the founder of modem meteorology, J. F. Encke, famous astronomer and H. G. Magnus, general theoretic physicist. Their influence on young Konkoly is shown in his work during his whole life.

After his studies he is realizing his first journey over European observatories. He visited Heidelberg, Göttingen, York, Greenwich, Paris and Brussels. His second journey was realized in 1883 widened with visits in observatories in Postupim and Strasburg. He gains not only the recent astronomical notions but the new ones from chemistry and physics. He penetrates into secrets of construction of astronomical apparatuses as well.

For some period he works in county seat in Komárno after his return home at 1867 in spite of his preferential relation to natural sciences. He builds private yacht, busies himself with problem of navigational safety on the Danube and steam – locomotive safety within his "time off‘. He passed exams from ship captain and machinist – locomotive – driver al ready in 1864. He later leaves important mark of work of his own in this area, too. He has great merit with mapping of till then unknown bottom of the Danube and construction of the new railway running through Hurbanovo where he led the first tram as a locomotive–driver.

The founder of the Observatory in Hurbanovo was well–known and respected person. He kept up relations not only with prominent scientists – H. C. Vogel, M. Wolf, A. Secchi, J. Z. F. Zöllner, G. Schiaparelli, E. Weiss, L. Weinek and many others –‚ but with famous artists at this time, too. Among his personal friends belong also musical com posers F. Liszt and R. Wagner.

In years 1890–1900 Dr. M. Konkoly was a director of State Institute for meteorology and Earth magnetism in Budapest. The meteorological Observatory in Hurbanovo (1899) was also built during his activity years. The original number of 190 meteorological stations in 1870 went to 1438 till 1911 year.

      M. Konkoly - Thege in 1902 year

Dr. M. Konkoly was also a deputy of Hungarian Parliament in 1896 –1906 and at the same time with this function, he took care about development of observatory and its equipment. Many times he was defender of scientific culture and democratization of education in this parliament. In such a spirit, he gives his whole observatory to state in 1899 as a gift after the previous offer to Bratislava University. In 1902 he gives his whole estates around Hurbanovo to state (1560 Land–registered jutes) on condition that after his and wife‘s death au will be sold to landless people because he was without direct heirs (two sons died). This idea – to give, to enrich own country, help to its cultural development to stand up for the important place among other European countries – he unceasingly connected with development of the whole civilization on our planet. He fanatically believed that scientific-technical development created progress and happiness of humanity. There fore he was deeply interested in popularization of scientific notions, books writing, handbooks and publication of astronomical observations till the end of his life. Dr. M. Konkoly as a constructer authorised and patented not a one of his original instruments. His opinion was that knowledge is the common treasure of humanity and should serve and bring benefit to as many people as possible.

Dr. M. Konkoly‘s scientific and astronomical work consists of 3763 printed book pages. He was the membership of several scientific associations: Astronomische Gesselschaft, Royal Astronomical Society, Societ dei Spektorscopisti Italiana, Asociation Scientifique de France and many others. Since 1876 he was membership-correspondent of Academy of sciences and since 1884 he became an official member. He published more than 40 original scientific and expert works during these valid 7 years. His meritorious work was appreciated and distinguished many times; Honourable doctorate of Philadelphia University, Order Pro Litteris et Artibus, Prussian, Wrtenber and Serbia order, also gold medals for photographing of star‘s sky. Two little planets (1259 and 1445) were named by founder‘s name of observatory and by name of Hurbanovo which they even today symbolize his great human and scientific message together with his lifelong work.

Dr. Mikuláš Konkoly–Thege died in 17th February 1916 in Budapest and is buried in Hurbanovo.

                                                

Astronomy in Hurbanovo in years 1871-1918

Dr. Mikuláš Konkoly–Thege began his astronomical observations in summer 1871. First he made them from cupola at North-cast part manor-house, by 10 cm long Steinhel‘s refractor and one good-quality pendulum‘s clock. His first observations were orientated on research Solar stains, prominences, observation of bright comets and meteors He started to think about a construction of a new observatory after he obtained a 10,5 inch long reflector of Browning from London in Spring 1874, that could not be placed on the roof of the house. He rebuilds spa house on the bank of lake in observatory‘s park for this purpose. He installs here also own telescope, 25 cm refractor in which he uses lens, from the known firm Merz in München.

At the same time since 1867 Dr. Konkoly started meteorological observations. His private meteorological station is embodied into The State meteorological institution in 1872. In 1900 the new meteorological observatory is being built In Hurbanovo, getting the most important meteorological working place in Hungary. The systematic measurements of temperature, damp, rainfalls evaporation, measurements of land temperature in various depths, regular measurements of temperature of lower water, etc., were realized just here. In 90-ties he began also the geomagnetic observations registrations of Earth magnetism, earthquakes and study of the atmospheric electricity. In 1899 he built also variation pavilion. Observatory, meteorological and geomagnetic Observatory in Hurbanovo is the only natural scientific institutions in Slovakia, established in Hungarian period, which work till today.

Konkoly - Johnston´s heliostat 

On the top of its development, the astronomical part of observatories had 11 cupolas in which there were installed various telescopes and apparatuses. The main astronomical observatory with three cupolas was in the middle of the park and it worked only for astrophysical research. The other part of observatory was a didactic observatory, Heyde‘s cupola. Near this cupola there were other observatories with displaced roofs, called the American observatories. It was especially established with apparatuses for astrometry. The students of natural scientific faculty from Bratislava and Budapest improved here themselves in astronomical observations during their practises and summer holidays. The part of astronomical observatory was also a good library, chemical laboratory and astronomical workshop. Dr. M. Konkoly‘s observatory was really scientifically thought over one. The equipment of observatory consisted of great number of helpful, additional machineries to telescopes, the various spectroscopes clocks of pendulum and astronomical apparatuses for determination of precise moment the stars are running through meridian which were mostly made in own workshop and the other ones were bought abroad. First of all he bought the instruments from the English firms of John Browning (London) T. Cooke (York), Grubb (Dublin) and he equipped them with optical particles from the well-known firm of Sigismund Merz or Steinhel. It is necessary to remember 135 mm long telescope for solar photos (1908), Konkoly‘s setter of cassette, spectroscope and little camera for Moon’s photos (1905) from Konkoly´s workshop beside 25 cm long Merz-Zeiss-Konkoly‘s refractor (1883), with additional 16 cm astrograph (1904).

The other spectroscopic instruments were made, from wide-spacious meteoroscopes, spectroscopes with big distinguishable quality up to infrared spectrograph, in observatory‘s workshop. One of these for observation of protubarations was taken also by firm Zeiss in Jena, producing in 60-ties of our century, too. He also projected comparators for measurement of photo plates, from which one type was produced in whole series by known Dresden firm of Gustav Heyde. The most of these original astronomical apparatuses of Dr. M. Konkoly, presented on exhibition in London In 1908, were appreciated by Great price.

Dr. M. Konkoly not only constructed and used the astronomical apparatuses on astronomical observations but he carefully studied also their run and constructible qualities. Besides he obtained such great number of knowledge 50 that he has written three books about the construction of these apparatuses and methodics of astronomical observations. Today we can hardly imagine the great energy at writing of these books beside another activity because already one of them would be enough for lifelong work. In his work "Praktische Anleitung zur Austellung astronomischer Beobachtungen mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Astrophysik, nebst einer modernen Instrumentenkunde" (Braunschweig, 1883) on its 914 pages and 345 illustrations, he fully describes utilizing and the run of clock, meridian circles, astronomical apparatuses for determination of precise moment stars are running through meridian. He writes about equatorial latitudes and clock working, micrometers, apparatuses for observation of Sun, spectroscopes, construction of instruments for photograph of celestial bodies and various photometers. This work belongs even today among the basic handbooks for constructors of astronomical apparatuses and it is an important source of notions about the progress of astronomical apparatuses also for historians.

The great international response was called up for his another work "Praktische Anleitung zur Himmelsphotographie, nebst einer kurzgefassten Anleitung zur modernen photographischen Operation und Spectralphotographie im Cabinet" (Halle, 1887), in which he wrote about his rich experiences in astrophotography. He proudly remembered that even such master of astrophotography as his good friend Max Wolf from Heidelberg was learning from this work. Dr. M. Konkoly is also the author of chapter called Astrophotographie, known in astronomical handbook by W. Valentiner – "Handwörterbuch der Astronomie" (Leipzig, 1897).

The third work important also from the view-point of historical development of practical spectroscopy today is, called "Handbuch für Spectroscopiker im Cabinet und am Ferrohr" (Halle, 1897).

Concerning the rich establishment of instruments the Hurbanovo Observatory belongs next to Catania, Greenwich, Postupim and Zurich among the first observatories in Europe which was systematically interested in solar observation, already since the first years of its activity. They marked Solar stains, their positions and relative numbers already since May 1872. Dr. M. Konkoly was also interested in photographing of Solar photosphere since 1896 and he introduced photographic registration of Solar stains, too, since 1908. He became a member of International Solar Committee already at the beginning of century. The results of permanent observations of Sun started in this period and done also today, have immense informative and scientific meaning. The visual and spectroscopic observations were realized in area of study of meteors. Dr. M. Konkoly belonged among the first astronomers, successful with recording the spectrums of several meteors. Simultaneously with English astronomer Alexander Herschel, he found out that the substance of meteors consists of red-hot firm substance having the elements of some metals and sodium. Even more interesting is his notion that also high atmosphere layers consist of sodium, as well. He started to get interested in study of meteors‘swarms, based upon works by V. G. Schiaparelli and E. Weiss and connected with meteorological rain, observed in Hurbanovo 27th November 1872 (frequency 38 meteors per minute). There were 251 radiant from 1641 observations of meteors in Hurbanovo. Dr. M. Konkoly made the sagacious network of meteorically stations for it and they were equipped with meteorscopes to determine the height and radiant of their flights. In 1875 he also organized the observation of Perzeids in Hurbanovo, which made at the same time also in Zagreb and Banská Štiavnica. In the final part of estimations of these results he shows the interesting connection between radiant positions of meteoric swarms and elements of courses of some comets.

Gotthard´s pointed okular on 254 mm refraktor

Dr. M. Konkoly belongs to the most active observers of comets at the end of 19 century. The first spectrum of comet was registered by him in 1874 (comet Coggia). He observed 40 comets, from which 23 were under the spectral research till the return of Halley’s Comet in 1910. Before he died, he realized one more spectroscopic observation of other 7 comets. He was one of the first men who has found out dark absorbable fraunhofers lines and bright emissive sodium lines in spectrum of bright comets substance in 1881. This phenomenon was later confirmed also by W. Huggins (London), H. C. Vogel (Postupim) and F. A. Bredichin (Pulkovo Observatory). The results of spectroscopic comet observations by Dr. M. Konkoly are rare factographic material for understanding of problem of their origin and development till now.

The systematic observations of changes on planets‘surfaces were started on big observatories in world only at the end of 19 century. The biggest attention was given to the observation of belt changes of Jupiter, Great red stain and mapping of Mars‘s surface. Therefore Dr. M. Konkoly carried out a lot of photographic studies of these planets since 1877. In years 1879–1892 these were especially the drawing photos of Jupiter and his red stain whose relative time was precisely determined by German astronomer Hermann Kobold accoding to these observations. In 1874 was observed the transition of Venus before Solar disc. Interesting experiments were carried out also in area of spectral photographic study of various areas on Moon to discover the mineral structure on its surface to compare it with mineral spectrum on Earth. In 1877 by observing the total eclipse of the Moon Dr. M. Konkoly found out that red colour is arising by refraction of light in atmosphere of Earth and not due to solar protuberations (flare).

Among the important works of astrophysical observatory in Hurbanovo belong the spectroscopic observations of stars as well. Dr. M. Konkoly and his colleagues described the spectras over 2000 stars at cataloguezation in European program and they helped very much to creation of foundations of spectra classification. The Observatory in Hurbanovo published its observations in two publications Photometric observations of Southern star sky (Hurbanovo, 1916, 1918).

Photometry of Nova Persei (March 1901), observations S Sagittae and T Vulpeculae, determining of stars‘ temperature by Zöllners calorimeter, spectral and colorimetric observations a UMa, ß Lyr, c Cas, Nova And, Nova Ori, also photographic study of nebula and star-heap are the other observations at this period, which are worth of attention. Dr. M. Konkoly was fond of studying the spectras of lightning at storms. The Observatory in Hurbanovo for long years determined the precise time for needs of posts and railways in whole country by the astronomical apparatus for determination of precise moment stars are running through meridian.

At this time there were many important astronomers working in Observatory in Hurbanovo. From foreigners there were especially H. Kobold (later the main editor of Astronomische Nachrichte), O. Tetens, C. Schrade and many others. The longest time in Hurbanovo was spent by astronomers such as R. Kövesligethy, co-founder of spectral catalogue, B. Harkányi, author of methodics of measurement of star temperature, L. Terkán and A. Tass, working very much in study of refraction and extinction and in area of star photometry.

The results of astronomical observations were edited by The Observatory in Hurbanovo at first in Astronomische Nachrichten and later in their own astronomical year-books Beobachtungen, angestellt am Astrophysikalischen Observatorium in Ó Gyalla. They contain yearly results of observations since 1871–1902. The other continuous series of 14 – so called little editions readily inform the public about the performed expert programs of observatory but also about improving of construction of astronomical apparatuses with precise description and scheme of improved apparatus and observational method.

The half-centurial, endless activity of the Observatory in Hurbanovo is interrupted after death of its founder dr. M. Konkoly Thege (1916) due to political changes in Europe, after the disintegration of Austria-Hungary and arising of Czechoslovak republic in 1918, for several months.                                                 

 

Astronomy in Hurbanovo in 1919-1938 years

The Observatory in Hurbanovo with its widely intent program, not only in astronomy but also in meteorology and geophysical observations, belonged among the prominent scientific institutions in Central Europe at the beginning of 20th century. Creed of Dr. M. Konkoly, not only to preserve but produce and spread the new scientific notions for the benefit of humanity, marked the whole activity of observatory also after arising of the first Czechoslovak republic. For it contributed also very good relations in the past between Dr. M. Konkoly and Ladislav Weinek, director of Observatory in Prague, also the effort of Dr. M. Konkoly to bring the interested people to astronomical and meteorological observations from the various places of Slovakia. This way he stimulated the wide interest in public about astronomy and observational activity as a basis of further development in new arising Czechoslovakia.

The observatory in Stará Ďala during the 1st ČSR

In 1919 the observatory become a State astrophysical one of Prague‘s observatory under the leadership of Ministry of school and enlightenment. Although some inventory as booklets, maps, diapositives and auxiliary astronomical apparatuses was preserved in Hurbanovo (the observatory was without the main apparatus at this time). This fact influenced also the another direction of expert work which was orientated mainly on theoretical works beside the systematic observations of Sun and variable stars by smaller telescopes. It is important to remind the calculation of prime numbers and numerical functions by Dr. J. Kaván and pioneer relativistic works in area of theoretical physics, mathematics and philosophy of prof. A. Dittrich who was an important author in historical and astronomical area, too.

Be in year 1927 Dr. Bohumil Šternberk (21. 2. 1897–24. 3. 1983), the most important astronomer living in Slovakia between the two wars, the first Czechoslovak astrophysist, came to Hurbanovo. He was studying in Philosophical Faculty KU. He was working, after his study, under the leadership of Paul Guthnick in one of the biggest and the most modern observatories in Babelsberg, near Berlin (1921–1923). After his return from Germany he works as an assistant in Astronomical institution of Carl University in Prague till 1927 when he was sent to Hurbanovo.

Dr. Bohumil Šternberk in Hurbanovo

Dr. Bohumil Šternberk came with the task renew the astronomical observations in Hurbanovo and put to work the new 60 cm reflector from firm Zeiss. The new telescope was nearly 40 years the biggest and the most important apparatus in Czechoslovak astronomy.

Dr. Bohumil Šternberk was the first in Europe to measure the position of new discovered planet Pluto by this telescope in 1930. It was the first measurement of celestial body by photographical way in Czechoslovakia and obtained results belonged to the most precise ones in the world. The another important Dr. B. Šternberk‘s work was the measurement of photometric point of intersection of Finslers comet. It was the first experiment about the study of light partition in comet‘s head in the world. Dr. B. Šternberk was interested in questions of metrics and how to replace the photometric measurements by ones done by the help of photomultiplier. He introduced an original idea to strengthen the pulsing photocurrent from the various area of Moon, planets and stars well – hear able in note – radio. These talks from Moon and Vega had great response. The English society British Broadcasting Corporation recorded it. In one of the articles in "Star‘s Empire", shortly before his death, Dr. B. Šternberk opened his heart how highly he respected the work of M. Konkoly whom he had known not only from his expert works and publications, but also from the preserved correspondence with important personalities of science and art of those times. At the beginning of 30-ties he proposes as the basic scientific program the main questions of au three departments of institution – astronomy, geophysics and meteorology, in the same Dr. M. Konkoly‘s way. According to this program he started to develop the spectrohelioscope of Halle‘s type together with Dr. B. Nováková. It was the first apparatus of this type in Czechoslovakia. He managed to obtain the other two experts, geophysicist J. Bouška and meteorologist E. Veselý beside astrophysicist B. Nováková for realization of this program.

However the hopeful scientific plans were staved off by events in 1938 year. The whole inventory, also the main apparatuses of Observatory in Hurbanovo was evacuated and they later become the important equipment of Astronomy Institute SAV in Ondřejov near Prague and Astronomy Institute SAV on Skalnaté Pleso in High Tatras.

 

The present Astronomy in Hurbanovo

The last period in history of astronomy in Hurbanovo is considered since 1962, when the astronomical observations were started again next to the permanent meteorological, seismic and geomagnetic observations.

By merit of L. Valach, Š. Kupča, E. Csere and J. Očenáš, the National observatory is created, whose activity is growing bigger for district, region and Slovak territory because of intensive cultural education and observational work. Since 1969 it is called the Slovak central observatory, under direct leadership of organization Ministry of culture SR, and the main mission is coordination of construction, popularization – education, expertly – observational and research activity of whole network of Slovak observatories and of the whole amateur astronomical movement. In 1972 the Observatory in Hurbanovo was newly-named the Slovak Centre of Amateur Astronomy.

By the merit of Observatory in Hurbanovo is opened the post graduate study of Astronomy in the year 1969 and the little telescopes are made for schools and general public. In 1970 the first edition of Slovak astronomical journal Kozmos is issued and the Slovak union of astronomers-amateurs is established. The Observatory in Hurbanovo, already since the beginning of its activity, is interested very much in propagation of the new astronomical notions to extend of the number of people interested in astronomy and material securing of astronomical Slovak institutions according to idea of Dr. M. Konkoly. The number of astronomical Slovak institutions went from 13 to 27 during 20 years. There are also much more astronomical layman’s clubs from original 105 to over 1,100. In 1990 they had about 18,000 members.

The popularly-educational activity of headquarters was given especially to the organisation of Slovak expert and methodical seminars, astronomical practices, International meetings of young astronomers and thematic excursions. More than 250 thousand people visited the Observatory in Hurbanovo since the beginning of its activity, for excursions of observations of the interesting phenomenon on sky, programs in planetarium, programs of model physics lectures, geography and astronomy for film evenings, talks, lecture series.

The important means to permanent help for development of education and methodic mission of Observatory in Hurbanovo is its editorial activity, too. It is especially journal Kozmos standing on prominent place In Inter national standard. Further there are various book publications, schemes for observations and construction of astronomical implements, star maps, circulars, astronomical year-book, calendars, magazines from seminars, various astronomical films, diafilms and video films. Since 1969 more than 500 pieces of little scholar telescopes MDN 120 and 130 were made for schools and public in area of production of technical implements in observatory.

The traditional fine-arts and competitions from astronomy called Cosmos through children eyes, What we know about stars, also the expert competitions for example We are looking for Solar clock and Astrophoto, play the important role in Observatory work with children and youth for the positive relation to astronomy. Many of them have acquired the international character already in present days. 1969 year meant in activity of Observatory in Hurbanovo also the quality in expert – observational and research activity. The observation of Sun, stars covered by Moon and photographing of bolids were extended in observations of meteors and variable stars.

The main expert program of present observatory is the area of solar physics and studying of relations Sun–Earth. Regularly there are drawings of solar photosphere, photographical watching of Sun and observations of solar eruptions by spectrohelioscope. The new facilities of work in this area were formed in 1984, by installing 60 cm solar telescope, made by firm Zeiss with cooperation with Hungarian electronic firm Vilati. Tele scope is used mainly for research of active solar areas in special lines of its spectrum.

The quality of Solar observations and their propagation on domestic and foreign expert enterprises have got the observatory into State plan of basic research, called evolutionary characteristics of astrophysical process and active appearances on Sun, and into the other international programs of Sun.

They have found out especially correlations between changes of Solar green corona and geomagnetic storms in area Sun–Earth and possible influences of solar activity on earth atmospheric electricity. The important a permanent results have been achieved also in study of Solar corona at the time of total Solar eclipse. According the first Hurbanovo‘s expedition to total Solar eclipse in Orenburg (USSR, 13. 6. 1936), there were realized the other two expeditions to Eastern Siberia in Tchukotka (USSR, 22.7.1990) and peninsula Baja California Sur (Mexico, 11.7.1991). In 1984 there were more expert observations in area of research of interplanetary matter in Observatory in Hurbanovo. They informed especially of visual and photographic watching of comets and asteroids.

Among the interesting results of these observations belong also discoveries of the new asteroids, where just the first three ones were called by names of important personalities of Slovak science and culture (Ľ. Štúr, J. M. Hurban a M. R. Štefánik), according to suggestion of their discoverer (M. Antal).

The Observatory in Hurbanovo closely cooperates with many partner domestic institutions and abroad In alt areas of its activity.

In harmony with the message of Hurbanovo Observatory‘s founder Dr. M. Konkoly-Thege, the historical fame and success of Observatory In Hurbanovo are always alive and there is also traditional astronomical idea of endless cooperation and friendship among the nations alt over the world.